To achieve this, hair is wound around small plastic curlers, called rods. Once every strand is rolled, locks are saturated with waving lotion.
This lifts the individual tiles that comprise your hair’s cuticle layer, seeps into the hair strand, and breaks down the bonds that give your hair its individual shape. This lotion is sometimes called “reducing” lotion because it actually reduces the interlocking ability of hair’s bonds.
Following a perm, it takes up to 48 hours for your hair’s keratin to completely re-bond and your cuticle layer to close.
That’s why you are not supposed to wash, wet style, or brush your hair during this period.
When the hair’s bonds have been broken apart, the hair is then doused in neutralizer; this forces hair’s bonds to re-form according to the configuration of the rods the hair is rolled on.
This neutralizer is often called an oxidizing liquid because it into the hair, which in turn combines with the hair’s natural hydrogen molecules to form new hair bonds.
1. Alkaline permanent waves are standard perms. Their waving lotions use a strong, alkaline chemical called ammonium thioglycolate, hence their nickname “thio perms”.
They work quickly, give strong curl, and are great for hair that is resistant to perms, such as coarse or Asian hair. The bad thing about alkaline perms is that they do not offer subtle, soft results, and can be very damaging. In addition, they are not recommended for those with artificial color on their hair or for people who have very dry or damaged locks.